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When our program is simple, and it is not going to terminate before reaching the last line of the code, or the code is error free, then we can use the void main. But if we want to terminate the program using exit method, then we have to return some integer values (zero or non-zero). In that situation, the void main will not work.

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Standard Library Headers
Freestanding and hosted implementations
Named requirements
Language support library
Concepts library(C++20)
Diagnostics library
Utilities library
Strings library
Containers library
Iterators library
Ranges library(C++20)
Algorithms library
Numerics library
Localizations library
Input/output library
Filesystem library(C++17)
Regular expressions library(C++11)
Atomic operations library(C++11)
Thread support library(C++11)
Technical Specifications
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General topics
Escape sequences
Flow control
Conditional execution statements
Iteration statements (loops)
Jump statements
goto - return
Function declaration
Lambda function declaration
inline specifier
Exception specifications(until C++20)
noexcept specifier(C++11)
Fundamental types
Enumeration types
Function types
Storage duration specifiers
Default initialization
Value initialization
Zero initialization
Copy initialization
Direct initialization
Aggregate initialization
List initialization(C++11)
Constant initialization
Reference initialization
Alternative representations
Boolean - Integer - Floating-point
Character - String - nullptr(C++11)
typedef declaration
Type alias declaration(C++11)
Implicit conversions - Explicit conversions
static_cast - dynamic_cast
const_cast - reinterpret_cast
Memory allocation
Access specifiers
friend specifier
Class-specific function properties
Virtual function
override specifier(C++11)
final specifier(C++11)
Special member functions
Default constructor
Copy constructor
Move constructor(C++11)
Copy assignment
Move assignment(C++11)
Basic Concepts
language keywords
phases of translation
the main() function
names and identifiers
fundamental types
object lifetime
storage duration and linkage
definitions and ODR
name lookup
qualified name lookup
unqualified name lookup
the as-if rule
undefined behavior
memory model

A program shall contain a global function named main, which is the designated start of the program. It shall have one of the following forms:

intmain(){body} (1)
intmain(intargc,char*argv[]){body} (2)
/* another implementation-defined form, with int as return type */ (3)
argc - Non-negative value representing the number of arguments passed to the program from the environment in which the program is run.
argv - Pointer to the first element of an array of argc +1 pointers, of which the last one is null and the previous ones, if any, point to null-terminated multibyte strings that represent the arguments passed to the program from the execution environment. If argv[0] is not a null pointer (or, equivalently, if argc > 0), it points to a string that represents the name used to invoke the program, or to an empty string.

body - The body of the main function

The names argc and argv are arbitrary, as well as the representation of the types of the parameters: int main(int ac, char** av) is equally valid.

A very common implementation-defined form of main() has a third argument (in addition to argc and argv), of type char*[], pointing at an array of pointers to the execution environment variables. /xforce-keygen-64-bit-free-download-2017/.

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The main function is called at program startup after initialization of the non-local objects with static storage duration. It is the designated entry point to a program that is executed in hosted environment (that is, with an operating system). The entry points to freestanding programs (boot loaders, OS kernels, etc) are implementation-defined.

The parameters of the two-parameter form of the main function allow arbitrary multibyte character strings to be passed from the execution environment (these are typically known as command line arguments), the pointers argv[1] . argv[argc-1] point at the first characters in each of these strings. argv[0] is the pointer to the initial character of a null-terminated multibyte string that represents the name used to invoke the program itself (or an empty string ' if this is not supported by the execution environment). The strings are modifiable, although these modifications do not propagate back to the execution environment: they can be used, for example, with std::strtok. The size of the array pointed to by argv is at least argc+1, and the last element, argv[argc], is guaranteed to be a null pointer.

The main function has several special properties:

a) in particular, it cannot be called recursively
2) It cannot be predefined and cannot be overloaded: effectively, the name main in the global namespace is reserved for functions (although it can be used to name classes, namespaces, enumerations, and any entity in a non-global namespace, except that a function called 'main' cannot be declared with C language linkage in any namespace(since C++17))
3) It cannot be defined as deleted or declared with C language linkage(since C++17), inline, static, or constexpr
4) The body of the main function does not need to contain the return statement: if control reaches the end of main without encountering a return statement, the effect is that of executing return0;.
5) Execution of the return (or the implicit return upon reaching the end of main) is equivalent to first leaving the function normally (which destroys the objects with automatic storage duration) and then calling std::exit with the same argument as the argument of the return. (std::exit then destroys static objects and terminates the program)
6)(since C++14) The return type of the main function cannot be deduced (auto main(){. is not allowed)


If the main function is defined with a function-try-block, the exceptions thrown by the destructors of static objects (which are destroyed by the implied std::exit) are not caught by it.

The manner in which the arguments given at the OS command line are converted into the multibyte character arrays referenced by argv may involve implementation-defined processing:

  • Parsing C++ Command-Line Arguments MSDN
  • Shell Introduction POSIX

[edit]See also

Retrieved from ''

The difference between int main() and int main(void)

Both int main() and int main(void) may look like same at the first glance but there is a significant difference between the two of them in C but both are same in C++.

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In C, a function without any parameter can take any number of arguments. For example, a function declared as ‘foo()’ can take any number of arguments in C (calling foo(), foo(1), foo(‘A’,1) will not give any error).

The above code runs fine without giving any error because a function without any parameter can take any number of arguments but this is not the case with C++. In C++, we will get an error. Let’s see.

Running the above code will give us an error because we can’t pass any argument to the function ‘foo’.

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However, using foo(void) restricts the function to take any argument and will throw an error. Let’s see.

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The above code will give us an error because we have used ‘foo(void)’ and this means we can’t pass any argument to the function ‘foo’ as we were doing in the case of ‘foo()’.

So, both foo(void) and foo() are same in C++ but not in C. The same is the case with ‘main’ function also. So, the preferred form to use is int main(void) if main is not taking any argument.

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Difference between int main() and void main() and main()

Like any other function, main is also a function but with a special characteristic that the program execution always starts from the ‘main’. ‘int’ and ‘void’ are its return type. So, let’s discuss all of the three one by one.

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Dev C 2b 2b 5.11 Macro

  • void main – The ANSI standard says 'no' to the ‘void main’ and thus using it can be considered wrong. One should stop using the ‘void main’ if doing so.
  • int main – ‘int main’ means that our function needs to return some integer at the end of the execution and we do so by returning 0 at the end of the program. 0 is the standard for the “successful execution of the program”.
  • main – In C89, the unspecified return type defaults to int. So, main is equivalent to int main in C89. But in C99, this is not allowed and thus one must use int main.

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Dev C%2b%2b 5.11 Machinery

So, the preferred way is int main.